The Kiel shipyard of the German thyssenkrupp Marine Systems holding is the only one in the world where several types of conventional submarines are simultaneously created. Currently, the following units are being built: 209EG, 218SG and Dolphin AIP. Preparations are also under way to launch the German-Norwegian 212CD program.
The plant, whose traditions date back to the mid-nineteenth century, from the beginning was involved in the construction of underwater units. After the marriage in 1968, Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW) was established with the Hamburg shipyard Deutsche Werft. It participated independently or in consortia with other companies in all submarine programs for the Navy of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as in most export projects, producing ready-made units or material packages for their construction in foreign shipyards by means of technology transfer. Today, after almost half a century of its contemporary history, it has become synonymous with a plant specialized in the construction of non-nuclear submarines. Since the beginning of 2005 it belongs to tkMS, although it is usually - and not quite correctly - still called HDW. Otherwise,
Several at once
In the yard there are a number of halls and specialist workshops related to the production of ships. The most interesting of them is the hall of block fitting and final assembly of No. 9 hulls. Its size enables simultaneous work on three units until it is ready to leave the building. The fourth hull blocks can be equipped simultaneously.
View from the city side to the shipyard thyssenkrupp Marine Systems in Kiel. Fig. TKMS.
Final equipment on three lines is possible, among others thanks to the flexible horizontal transport system. Instead of roller conveyors in HDW, a pneumatic system is used. The pressed air lifts the frame together with the hull block above the surface of a perfectly smooth floor, which allows you to move them in an optimal way to the work flow. This system is also used to bring ready ships outside, to the launch platform.
Currently, at various stages of construction in HDW are the first two Singaporean ships type 218SG, the third Israeli Dolphin AIP and the third and fourth Egyptian 209EG. In addition, the production of a second pair of units for Singapore began. As if that was not enough, a German company specializing in underwater units, performs repair services for Deutsche Marine and foreign clients (currently, for example for Portugal).
Most of the newly built ships are equipped with a propulsion system independent of the atmospheric air (not only Egyptian "two hundred nine"), based on electrochemical cells, characterized by high efficiency, no moving parts generating noise and vibrations, work at low temperature and not producing exhaust. Reagents for their operation - oxygen and hydrogen - are stored safely in special tanks on the ship.
209EG - with a rich pedigree
Over 60 units for 14 fleets in over 30 years - this result puts the 209 type in the global top of exported submarines after World War II. The evolution of type 209 has been ongoing since the second half of the 1960s, when construction of the first ship in version 209/1100 for Greece began. As it turned out, he was the progenitor of several varieties of constantly modernized units, tailored to meet the requirements of various world fleets. The ships were made in German shipyards, but they were also built abroad, based on packages of semi-finished products prepared in Germany. Of course, there is already a technical gap between the oldest and the youngest varieties, resulting from the use of the latest electronic equipment, weapons, drive systems and material technologies. All this made
First of all, the integrated combat system Atlas Elektronik ISUS 90-45 was used. Through an electronic data bus, it connects all sensors (a hydrolocation system, periscope, optoelectronic mast, radar, electronic combat system) and means of communication and navigation. ISUS allows you to track targets and analyze their routes, display the tactical situation, guide and guide torpedoes, plan an attack, as well as conduct simulations, record data and conduct self-tests.
The successful 209 model still finds buyers. Fig. TKMS.
The ships also received the modern optoelectronic mast Zeiss OMS 100 (Optronics Mast System). The device features non-penetrating technology with fiber optic image transmission to the console and a combination of high resolution TV cameras and infrared cameras in a common mast. OSM 100 is supported by the SERO 400 battle periscope equipped with a high definition TV camera, a low-lighting camera and a digital camera.
Another asset of the Egyptian "two hundred nines" is the Atlas Elektronik CSU 90 hydrolyzing system. Its task is to detect and indicate targets, navigation and underwater communication. It includes a bow passive medium frequency pass for circular observation, a passive low-frequency passive hydrolyzer with antennas located along the sides and providing observation on the flanks, active distance measurement hydrolyzer, active anti-mine hydrator, underwater telephone and own noise measurement station.
The armament creates 8 caliber launchers of 533 mm. Egypt bought heavy, electrically-driven torpedoes with Atlas Elektronik DM2A4 Seahake electric drive. In addition, U-Booty type 209EG can launch Boeing UGM-84L Harpoon Block II anti-ship missiles. The supply of weapons is 14 pieces.
The successor of 209 in the export offer is type 214. Fig. TKMS.
Although Egyptian ships are not equipped with an AIP system, the 209 type can be integrated with it even during the modernization of the ship. In October 2014. the modernized Greek ship type 209/1200 Okeanos entered service, which was equipped with the German AIP PEM system during the modernization of the main ship.
Egypt ordered a pair of ships in 2011, and another contracted in 2014. To date, Germany has provided the first two units - S 41 and S 42.
The Dolphin AIP, currently being formed in Kiel, as well as the two similar units previously transferred to the Marine Corps of the Israeli Defense Forces, is a developmental version of three 800 ships, which have been used since 1999-2000.
212CD submarines for Norway and Germany are getting closer. tkMS has submitted the final offer
When the first three "Dolphins" raised their flags, they became one of the most modern conventional submarines in the world. They were also a "testing ground" for constructors working on new U-boats for Deutsche Marine. Many of their technical solutions and equipment were used on type 212A.
The ships were built as single-hulled. However, the shape does not resemble older structures. It is very streamlined, designed to reduce noise and hydrodynamic resistance. The proportions of length to width have changed radically: it is more "bulky". The spacing of the ship was also laid out in a novel way: stern rudders in the form of "X" were already used on Ula ships for Norway, but the bow was mounted in the front upper part of the hull. A conventional drive unit was used then, without AIP.
Israeli Dolphin AIP. Fig. IDF.
"Dolphins" were the first to receive the ISUS 90 integrated command and control system. They were equipped with the CSU 90-1 hydrolication system, while some of the electronics, including the electronic warfare system, were provided by Israeli companies.
The units were armed with a 533 mm caliber launcher. Some studies indicate the use of a 650 mm launcher. Units take 16 pieces of combat assets. The basic weapons are the Seehcht DM2A3 heavy torpedoes and the UHM-84C SubHarpoon anti-ship missiles. Probably, ships are also able to fire PopEye Turbo maneuvers of domestic production, which makes them the first in the world conventional submarines transferring this type of weapons. It is for them that larger launchers are provided.
The latest version of Dolphin AIP is the development of a successful predecessor. The AIP system was added, which resulted in the hull lengthening by about 11 m. In addition, new electronic systems and a modernized hydrolocking system were used, as well as newer DM2A4 Seahake torpedoes. The changes in the proportions of the hull also influenced the necessity to improve the hydrodynamics of the unit. Changed shape of the stern on which appeared hydrodynamic steering improving the flow of water from the hull to the propeller.
The contract for two Dolphins AIP was signed in 2006, and for the third one in 2012. The first pair started service in 2014 and 2015. The third one is to be launched this year. It is also planned to purchase a third series of ships that would replace the units of the first series.
The latest export project from Kiel is the 218SG model for Singapore. It is a development version of type 214 ships with numerous new products. The design number has been reportedly changed due to the fact that the number eight is considered happy in Singapore.
In the type 214 construction, experience from the operation of "two hundred nines" and the design of 212A ships for the German fleet were used. The units of this series are equipped with the AIP system. The hull was made of magnetic stil with an increased yield point ensuring a greater depth of immersion, while the German unit has it made of non-magnetic steel. 214 is also longer than 212A by about 10 m and displaces about 200 tons more on the surface. Structure 214 was optimized for operations on open seas, so it is not surprising that it was chosen by Greece, the Republic of Korea and Portugal (209PN variant). Greeks and Koreans built ships in their shipyards (except for the prototype Greek Papanikolis, which was established in Kiel).
The latest U-Boot - this time type 218SG for Singapore. Fig. TKMS.
The ships are equipped with eight 533 mm caliber launchers and can take 12 "long" weapons. The main weapon is the Seahake heavy torpedo, as well as Harpoon missiles. In addition, "two hundred and fourteen" and their derivatives are equipped with a CIRCE antitank system. It consists of two or four swinging launchers, placed under the light hull, containing ten containers with self-propelled and drifting virtual targets. Their task is to confuse the heads of the approaching torpedoes and to a lesser extent the sonars attacking submarines.
The integration of sensors and weapons provides the ISUS 90-15 command and control system. The technical observation is carried out by: the CSU 90 hydrolication system, OSM 100 optoelectronic mast, Zeiss SERO 400 periscope, 1007 navigation radar and the UME 150 electronic fight system.
tkMS builds ships for Singapore. The first "two-sixteen" launched in Kiel
Singaporean type 218SG is the latest incarnation of "two hundred and fourteen". It has an increased buoyancy and overall length, a new version of the AIP system, ensuring a prolonged period of immersion, improved hydrodynamics of the hull and rudder immersion in the form of the letter "X", instead of a cross as for 214.
The Prototype Invincible was launched on February 18 at the shipyard in Kiel. The unit opens a series of four ships. The contract for the first pair was signed in December 2013, and the others were purchased in May 2017. The first will go into service in 2021, the second in 2022, and the others after 2024. They will replace two Challenger ships (old ex-Swedish type Sjöormen) - first in general in the fleet of the Republic of Singapore - and a pair of Archer (also acquired in Sweden after the withdrawal from its fleet, type Västergötland). In this way, the Germans with their offer interrupted the domination of the Swedes in the field of submarine Singapore, which laid the foundations themselves.
Currently, tkMS focuses on the preparation of the project and then the production of 212CD ships (common design) for the German (two) fleets and Norway (four). There are not many known about the 212CD type. It is possible to deduce from scanty Internet information that it will be slightly larger than its original, and its strong hull will be made of amagnetic steel (similar to 212A ships). The long-term stay of 212CD ships under water (up to 30 days) will not only provide the latest generation of AIP, but also - for the first time used on the German submarine - lithium-ion batteries. According to statements of Norwegian politicians, new units will receive armed missiles, including NSM SL missiles